7.59. Vernant and Detienne, Les ruses 264-65. The metre of Olympian II is still a matter of some difficulty. 1990. 4.43). E. Herakl. Arefhusa 11 (1978) 149-84. See also note 47 above. 36 (1986) 68-85. (The close link of the two births in ritual may have given rise to the tradition, attested in Etymologicum Magnum S.V.Erekhtheus, that Hephaistos pursued Athena the moment she sprang from the head of Zeus.) Boardman. 535-37, Erga 42-52). The land of the Rhodians, on the other hand, is fertilized once and for all as soon as it comes to light (literally). 490d.6.232-35 = 23.159-62 (tekhncn pantoien); H. Horn. 4.229,9.131; Hes. Therefore, rather than trying to dis- entangle the threads of Pindaric invention and Rhodian tradition, we should assume a dynamic process in which the ideology of the polis and the mythmaking of Pindar interact with each other to transcend the occasionality of the local and transform Diagoras' ode into a golden inscription-that is, a Panhellenic monument. 1 PINDAR OLYMPIAN 1 CLASS OBJECTIVES: Cultural: understand key cultural elements behind Pindar’s poetry: the significance of athletic victory, the uses of mythology to create a common history, etc. does not require the virgin goddess to use fire. 22; Zenon FGrHist 523 F l).5x This is not impossible, but the phrasing of the gn6m6 may also allude to the ab- sence of fire from the art of the Heliadai. The appar- ent shift of emphasis here from the birth of Erikhthonios to that of Athena should not detain us. offers a richer explanation, without, however, questioning the commonly assumed meaning of l~irhu.In his view. 24c (topos andras pherei); cf. Pindar Isthmian 7.16–19. virginldaughter AthenaAthena< motherlwife Rhodes. $æÚµfÑôˆÂeÇç%ÐôR˜¬Ò³åRÈÅX 346s*’p];G"³Æ$n£Ì§«f½èó:òF¤ôŠ€#Å7d~㋅HáJål. Boardman, John. 843e. Literary/Historical: to learn the terms necessary to understand the structure and performance of Pindar… Healing, Sacr$ce, and Battle: Amechania and Related Concepts in Early Greek Poetry. 6.7.1–2). The associa- tion of fire and the male element is apparent. Rhodes is fertilized, of course, by Helios, the primeval fire, which exists from the beginning. 927-29 Hephaistos is born by Hera alone in retaliation for Athena's birth by Zeus alone; see also. "Pindar et I'Orient: le mythe de la VIle Olympique." On the function of myth as a means of communication see Burkert, Structure 24-26. Numerous studies have variously approached this manifold festival, which concur- rently celebrated the birth of Athena and the emergence of the polis. The oddity of the rite is ascribed by Duchemin, "Pindare" 119-26, to its kinship with a New Eastern theme attested in 1 Kings 17-18. obvious one: the very occasion of the fireless sacrifice in Rhodes is the birth of Athena, and legend identified her birthday with the day of her festival in at hen^. Hermes Enzelschrift, 4. 316; cf. "1 cannot see why the expression khrusec~is niphadessi (34) has led scholars to invent a second precipitation; see, e.g., Rubin, "Epinician Symbols" 74-75. Slater, W. J. Lexicon to Pindac Berlin: de Gruyter, 1969. lathd, lanthand. Plat. S.V.Erekhtheus; Hyg. Eratosth. Pa. 8.65-67; Hes. 5.27. Marie. And third. "45 Whatever the answer may be, Pindar's passage combines gold and water in the image of the golden rain.46 The reward to the first runners at Rhodes came, of course, in far larger quantities than the prize of the Pan- athenaic torch race (49-50): The reward of the Rhodians reverses in fact the rule of the Panathe~aic race. Three anecdotes in the Vita Ambrosiana point to Pin­ dar's close relationship with the gods. RhM, n.s. 49-51). In turn she can assist with the creation of living beings without needing the male element, the fire of the fire god, the quasi-husband of the Athenian Athena. "Athena soulevant de terre le nouveau-ne: du geste au mythe." 23Burkert, "Jason" 1-16; Homo Necans 190-96; Robertson, "Origins" 274-81. Amcrlcan Journal ofPhilology 114 (1993) 1-26 0 1993 by The John? Buy eBook Are you a university, library or bookstore? 33Loraux,Les enfanrs 61-62 and n. 129.341t is likely that lampadidromiai were relay races, as A. Ag. at the Khalkeia is so closely bound up with the presence of Hephaistos that it is unclear which, if any, of the two gods preceded the other in the evolution of this festival of the bronze smith^.^^ And as we have seen, the fire god is conspicuous even at the Panathenaia, Athena's festival par e~cellence.~~, The consis- tent bond of Hephaistos and Athena in myth and ritual highlights the importance of fire in the formation of the technical intelligence that underlies the development of human craft.54 To be effective this bond had to be proclaimed and renewed on many a ritual occasion in the course of the calendar year.55 To this overwhelming emphasis on the links between Hephaistos and Athena in the Athenian sources we need. And, in fact, if motivation implies also invention, to what ex-. Greek Sculpture 154. 6.139; cf. Horno Necans. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1974. Emphasis is placed on the explanations of peculiarities of grammar and idiom, but due attention is paid to figures of style and problems of poetic structure. In Theognis of Megara: Poetry and the Polis, edited by T. J. Figueira and Gregory Nagy 22-81. It has been noted that "the oxymoron of virginal mater- nity" in Athenian ideology "promises fertility without the dangerous corollary of se~uality."~~. Astron. 573-75; cf. ... Olympian 7: Diagoras of Rhodes, Boxing-Match (464 BCE). 7.91-94, 100-102; cf. In order to be effective, that is, to exhibit a Panhellenic relevance and achieve a Pan- hellenic audience, Pindaric song had to transcend its epichoric charac- ter. Lys. The problem. Les enfants dAth6na. PI. The Ordeal of the Athlete and the Burden of the Poet 6. Among the striking features of this narrative, the fireless rites offered to Athena stand out. before koruphan is heard, that pateros is a genitive of possession taken closely with Athanuin. Vit. 1.24.3." passage the form of fire.29 The collocation sperma . Lawall, Gilbert. . Moreover, the diction of the gnomic statement under discussion should put us on our guard. race. Another point still requires consideration: the word Iatha (45), usually construed as "forgetfulness" or "oblivion," might be taken to imply that the Rhodians actually forgot to take fire from the beginning. Hence I agree with Verdenius. hjAIthough ErikhthoniosIErekhtheus is called son of Ge (11. Arist. Lund: Gleerup, 1951. These three instances are the only times she is mentioned in the ode. Ducrey, 295-303. s.v. 2.1249, citing Duris E'. The verb icrini, in Homer can mean "to heat" (Od. The Olympian and Pythian odes; with an introductory essay, notes, and indexes Item Preview 3For the epinician itself as bridging the gap between the victor and the polis see Crotty, Song, and Burnett, Bacchylides 50 and 175 n. 6. Theog. That is illustrated by the reverse narrative order of the poem, and as a result it emerges that the Rhodians trace their descent back to autochthonous birth from a land fertilized by that primordial fire of the sun. Apart from the fact that gnomic statements such as this widen the import of the particular without having to correspond point by point to the details of the narrative, a more general paraphrase such as "the Rhodians forgot the commands of Heli~s"~~, would fit with both the Pindaric diction and with the context of the torch race. Schwyzer, Eduard, and Albert Debrunner. 2.27 is even more direct: Philostratos' account of Athena's birth bears an especially strong re- semblance to Pindar's, but whatever the precise relation of the two passages to 01.7, the point remains that Pindar's allusive narrative can be supplemented by the two later writers. I am inclined towards the latter, but either view would not affect the present argument. 43): and third, when Athena, following the lead of her father, bestows boons on the Rhodians (xaivo~ot pkv . Civ. '^ Such tensions are absent in the Rhodian case because Rhodes' twofold nature embraces the capacities of both the earth and the human mother. First, we must note an. The reference to the Telkhines is rejected by Young, Three Odes 86 n. 2. by Ruck, "Marginalia" 129-31. and by Verdenius, Cornnzentnrirs on line 53. course, "to bring, to carry," but when used of trees or land it can also mean "to bring forth, to produce. Moreover, the misinterpreta- tion of latha has led scholars who strive to explain the Rhodians' bless- ings to unlikely speculations: it was for their good intentions that Zeus and Athena rewarded the Heliadai. Hephaistos' ab- sence is all the more striking since it is his own craft that brings about Athena's birth in the poem (35-37). On the intricacies of this relationship between praise of victor and praise of polis see Kurke, Oikonomia 125-92. 'XAn analogous effect may be achieved in the combination tlirrmon iuncrien (43). 125-92. More specifically, both myth and rite conjoin Athena with the fire god, Hephaistos or Pro- metheus, and Er~s.~', We have already mentioned that the Panathenaic torch race can be-and in fact has been-described as essentially a new-fire rite.Z2 Moreover, it is not uncommon to find such rites associated with tales of sexual tension, occasionally resulting in violation andlor other vio- lence. 294-95). While Athena's birth from a father has been characterized as "le produit d' une operation mCtallurgique,"69 Rhodes' birth without a father is depicted in terms that recall the growth of plants. air-rabk. In both cases the tekhnc' is rectricted and. It is such a mishap of the Rhodians. In celebration of this victory Pindar, visiting the court of the tyrant, composed Olympian 2, incidentally providing us with one of the earliest literary expressions of a belief in transmigration of I believe, that is reflected in the strange word order of 01.7.48: The placement of the negative olr at the very end is rare, if not unique.35 Here it illustrates very concretely, almost iconically, what actually hap- pened. 3.14.6; Paus. . Yet Asclepiades, according to the scholiast (Drachmann I 203), gives Helios and Aphrodite as Rhodes' parents. 69-79; J. H. Barkhuizen, "Pindar's Seventh Olympian Ode," Acta Classica 23 (1980) 107-10. WS 17 (1895) 180-96. In the. Robertson, "Origins" 254-58, keeps the two figures completely distinct. Not the scholiast (Drachmann 1 216-17), who remarks: "The Athenians happened to be the first to sacrifice; therefore the goddess settled there (sc. London: Macmillan, 1930-32. The mythic section of the ode falls into three parts, which are narrated in reverse chronological order. Phdc 213e) on the east side of the Parthenon, in front of the depiction of her birth on the east pediment (Paus. Kiihner and Gerth, Grtzmmtrtik I1 2 179; Schwyzer and Debrunner. and specifically their Panhellen- ization, see Nagy. Verdenius, W. J. hOSee Od. Even leaving aside the Lemnian festival and the new-fire rites, we can al- ready appreciate the contrast between Athens and Rhodes. See also IG IIZ223 B 4; cf. Theron, tyrant of Akragas, won a victory in the Olympic games. 1.26.6-7, with Frazer's commentary; Strabo 9.1.16; Plut. Vernant and Detienne. H. Hom. 7 simply as a blessing. 243-44. Autochthony is the outcome of Helios' primordial fire (71-73). The failure of the Rhodian runners constitutes, therefore, a ritual mistake. Both Martin and Burkert, "Jason," construe the Athenian festivals around the year ending and the New Year as multiforms to some degree of the Lemnian festival. 17.447; Od. In 01.7 they may not be as conspicuous as in Athens. Olympian 1 For Hieron of Syracuse Single Horse Race 476 B. C. Olympian 2 For Theron of Acragas Chariot Race 476 B. C. Olympian 3 For Theron of Acragas Chariot Race 476 B. C. Olympian 4 For Psaumis of Camarina Chariot Race 452 B. C. Olympian 5 For Psaumis of Camarina Mule Car Race ?460 or 456 B. C. Olympian 6 For Hagesias of Syracuse Mule Car Race 472 or 468 B. C. Olympian 7 … On the importance of autochthony as a concept shaping civic identity see Loraux, Les enfanfs 35-75 and, with emphasis on the idea of temporal priority, Rosivach, "Autochthony" 302-5. Kiihner, Raphael, and Bernhard Gerth. ZIIt is worth noting that before the institution of a torch race for Pan (Hdt. Second comes the birth of Athena, the fireless sacrifice offered to her by the Rhodians who failed to heed Helios' instructions, and their subsequent reward (34-53). 1°For a summary bibliography see Robertson, "Origins" 232 n. 2. (Drachmann I 218). Hephaistos or, in other versions, Pro- metheusI5 desired Athena and pursued her until he spilled his semen on her thigh. We are told that 7 Plut. 7.44 (e.g., Pyth. Pindar's Seventh Olympian Ode celebrates the Olympic boxing victory in 464 won by Diagoras of the Rhodian family of the Eratidai.' Although the picture in. To sum up so far, Pindar brings out in relief the correspondence between the two ways of honoring Athena: the Rhodian fireless rite with its aition and the Panathenaic torch race with its aition. 7), and the frequent refer­ ences to myths and legends throughout his works. 8.44).17, It was that event that the Panathenaic torch race commemorated; or, conversely, the myth served as the aition for the ritual.I8 The run- ners, possibly reenacting Hephaistos' pursuit, started at the altar of Eros in the Academy and ran with their torches uphill to the Acropolis. Generally, the root herp-, even when not used explicitly of reptiles and other creeping things (LSJ S.V. These have established the ode’s ring-compositional structure and its 7 she appears only at the side of her father, never alone: first. The fire god is as necessary in autochthony as in the production of artifacts. The Lemnian rite, often mentioned in this context,23 should per- haps be placed at the end of the spectrum. Sullivan, S. D. "A Strand of Thought in Pindar, Olympians 7." On the association of Hephaistos and Athena in Athens in general, see Delcourt, He'phaistos 191-203; Lo- raux, Les enfants 123 and n. 16; Brommer, Hephaistos 157-59. For all their hastiness to be the first (pr6toi, 42), how could they possibly forget to provide for the most essential part of the prescribed rite? The sentence xai nu~ihx~tn~uyyutwvheeav 6b6v CEw QQEV~V, "The parallels of Verdenius. 7 should come as no surprise. "The Cup, the Rose, and the Winds in Pindar's Seventh Olym- pian Ode." Epic, Praise, and the Possession of Poetry 7. Pindar's Hon~er82-145. Ctitcist. London: Thames &, Hudson, 1978. Following, reference is made to the name and origin of the victor, then to the sport and the location where the contest took place. On the multiple origin of Erikhthonios and on Athena's various functions see Loraux, Les enfants 22.57-65, esp. forgetting the fire implies that the Rhodians revert to the pre-Promethean condition: forgetfulness is a way of honoring Zeus, without at the same time offending Prometheus. '^ A second correspondence is the presence of the fire god, Hephaistos andlor Prometheus, who we have remarked were strongly linked with Athena in Athens both spatially (in the Academy) and ritually (at the torch race with its aetiology). Opus was a city of the Eastern Locrians, located north of Boeotia, whose early history Pindar briefly sketches in the poem. If, in order to comply with Helios' command, the Rhodians had to be the first to honor the goddess, against whom were they competing? Pindare le Dorien. The gnornr, although general, is phrased in spatial terms (prlrrlkri, hodon, rxG), which may thus allude to the course of the race." 62See Rubin, "Epinician Symbols" 75. hand, not the whole sack. Unz, R. K. "The Chronology of the Pentekontaetia." The Ancient Greeks. The delay of the negative produces suspense and mirrors the tension of the race. Autochthony and the production of living beings through art seem to be homologous.61 In Pindar's account, too, the production of Rhodian artifacts is described in a way that approximates it to emergence from the earth. Theog. Pind. CQ 20 (1970) 1-16. . that the idea of Athenian autoch- thony became prominent in the first half of the fifth century would chime in well with Pindar's allusions to Rhodian autochthony. . Greek Sculpture: The Archaic Period. The Greek lyric poet Pindar is renowned for poems celebrating athletic victories in the great games of Olympia, Delphi, Corinth and Nemea. Salt. 1.7; schol. CQ, n.s. It has commonly been recognized as differing from Pindar's other metres, but many opinions have been held of its character. as Bowra. 5.v. Bundy, E. L. Studia Pindarica, 1-11. 1.2.22; and esp. Just as appropriately, however, the poem can be described as a brilliant hymn to Rhodes. 13.38.5, 45.1; Xen. Aphr: 7-15; Aesch. 321d-e, Crit. Theog. Erga 109-26), were it not for the element of labor (uristoponois khersi) that defines the state of the Heliadai as human. See also Hes. Burkert. '2 In any case the torch race of the Panathenaia was run from the Academy, where Hephaistos was among the deities worshiped, uphill to the Acropolis through the Agora. The contest between Rhodes and Athens for Athe- na's favor at the time of her birth would then precede by one step the birth of Erikhthonios. H. Horn. Nem. 4 Pindar's Odes for Hagesidamos of Lokroi: Olympians 10 and 11* 5 Fragment of a Commentary on Pindar, Olympian 10; 6 Pindar's Twelfth Olympian and the Fall of the Deinomenidai* 7 The Oligaithidai and their Victories (Pindar, Olympian 13; SLG 339, 340)* 'For a recent comprehensive study see Robertson, "Origins. 0dr.r 85 n. 2. Robertson, "Origins" 241, 281-88. 1 reflects this Panhellenization, but I believe 01. 1.128, 134. r7The element of surprise may be stressed by the use of enjambment: teklznun is the last word of the third antistrophe,prrsr~n the first word of the third epode. edited by J. L. Heller, 34-50. 1.195: schol. "See Burkert, "Jason" 6 and n. 1. Loraux, Les en-. further back in time, Pindar relates the birth of Rhodes, island and nymph at the same time, and her marriage to Helios (54-76). ''On orthu hodos see Becker. 3.14.6; Har- pocr. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California, Press. I? Phdr: 231e). Pindar 339. In 01. though important in its own terms, is not crucial for our investigation. The winner of the Athenian race received money (30 drachmas) and a water jug (h~dria).~~. That Hephaistos' semen fell on the earth via Athena's thigh may not be accidental in light of Dionysus' birth from Zeus' thigh (E. Ba. Without it the Athenian soil would remain barren. the umbilical cord, so to speak, is never entirely severed. I think, concluded the matter. Alternatively, (c) it designates movement, often but not exclusively metaphorical, that is stealthy or secret (S. Aj. sister projects: Wikipedia article, Commons category, Wikidata item. If. 51Pau~.1.26.5; cf. Innsbruck: Institut fiir Sprachwissenschaft, 1983. 19.34). 37 (1987) 294-306. I suggest that we have Despite Verdenius, Commentaries on line 52, herpein is not a neutral word. hhHere the inclusion of her name between puteros and koruphun might lead one to believe. $37.63 + $3.99 Shipping Panathenaic torch race, while conceding that Athena became the pa- tron goddess of Athens,85 brings into relief the superiority of the Rho- dian fireless rite. Bowra, C. M. Pindar: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964. The chorus of the old men in the parodos of the Lysistrata climb up to the Propylaia carrying their firepots and singing (292-94): p4 p' &~O(J@E(J~$V tfi zeAeutfi tiis b8oij.43. 57-60, on Athena as mother and nurse; cf. NeuchStel: La Baconniere, 1962. 5.17; cf. Besides the equation of fire and sexuality, Apollonios' explication is also noteworthy because it applied a characteristically Athenian aition to an exclusively Rhodian rite. 3.4.3); cf. as in Delphi by the Medes, it could not be reset from another fire, but a fresh, new flame, pure and unpolluted, had to be kindled from the sun. At the time of Diagoras' victory, the Thasian revolt was already under way.79 Tensions broke out during the Pelopon- nesian War, when the family predictably sided with the Spartans, aim- ing at the secession of Rhodes. 'The fact that in our poem Zeus' shower falls on an island, not a woman, does not invalidate the parallel: the double character of Rhodes, nymph and island, is empha- sized time and again (13-14, esp. 79For a summary of Rhodian history see von Gaertringen, "Rhodos" 753-63. Les ruses de I'intelligence: la Metis des Grecs. Hdt. In Me'langes Paul Collart, edited by I? This paper, a version of which was pre- sented at the annual meeting of CAMWS in Columbia, Missouri, in April 1990, was conceived at a Princeton University seminar offered by W. R. Connor. Young, l'l7rc.r. Olympian 7: Rhodes, Athens, and the Diagorids* 1. In mythic terms, therefore, we can imagine that Athena is born and the Athenians and the Rhodians are in a hurry to carry fire to the top of their Acropolis and be the first to honor the goddess' birth with a solemn sacrifice. Verdenius, Commentaries on line 45. 7. Hannover: Hahn, 1898-1904. Kekrops, in turn, is present as an adult at the birth of Erikhthonios, as depicted on Athenian vases.33 Thus Diodoros' dating of the contest squares very well with the Panathenaic legend. Tim. Gaertringen. C'on~n~c~t~taric~,~. SZFor the sources and a summary of the problems concerning the Khalkeia see Parke, Festivals 92-93. It is fair to suppose that they viewed with suspicion the Athenians' increasing power within the Confederacy as exemplified by recent events: the crushing of the Naxian revolt and the attempt to colonize the Ennea Hodoi. The Authoritative Speech of Prose, Poetry, and Song: Pindar and Herodotus I 9. 2.670, the parallel with the Pan- athenaic festival holds true. To answer this question we have to compare the ways in which Athena and Rhodes are presented in 01. Pindar (c. 518-438 BCE), highly esteemed as lyric poet by the ancients, commemorates in complex verse the achievements of athletes and powerful rulers at the four great Panhellenic festivals -- the Olympic, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian games -- against a backdrop of divine favor, human failure, heroic legend, and aristocratic Greek ethos. 71The Athenians can be called "children of Hephaistos" (A. Eunl. Pindar himself, as early as the conclusion of the proem (13-14), declares that his purpose is to honor the island and, in one of his closing statements (93-94), insists on the interaction between oikos and polis: in particular that the polis will share in the festivities honoring the oiko~.~, The exaltation of the victor appears to set off the central mythic panel, which constitutes a proud encomium of the island state of Rhodes.3 It is my intention here to explore and substantiate this claim, which, let it be said in advance, is also supported by the fate of the poem as an artifact of public importance. Loraux, Les enfants 30. Not only does its location reach the outskirts of the Greek world, but also the violence of its myth attains unusual limits. On fire and sexuality in general see Bachelard, Feu. Nonetheless it is signifi- cant that Diodoros (5.56)places the contest between the Athenians and the Rhodians at the time of the reign of Kekrops. "The pediment that Pausanias saw was of course later than Pindar's ode. Brommer, Frank. 69Vernant and Detienne, Les ruses 177; cf. S.V. "to melt" (Od.12.175). Fab. "Thus whenever the chorus, as representative of the polis, speaks about things epichoric, it does so with a Panhellenic point of view. 2.548; Hdt. 109-30. 222), Epharmostus became a periodonikēs (victor in all four crown games).. Further, to return to the initial aim of this paper, to what. Figure 1 summarizes the basic differences between the Athenian myth of autochthony and Pindar's Rhodian version. 2 vols. Pindar's Rhodian version appropriates the Panathenaic model and thus attains a Panhellenic rele- vance and acceptance which the odd Rhodian rite could not assume by itself. Robertson, "Origins" 281-82 and n. 99. Paris: Maspero, 1981. It might not be out of place to point up the use of fire in marriage rites; see Furley, Fire 187-210. The Rhodian myth of autochthony, therefore, is shown to claim a certain superiority to its Athenian counterpart. Seven extant odes are analyzed with the aid of a commentary that progresses by level of difficulty and pays critical attention to the conventions of the victory ode. Theog. which illustrates the belief in the vital, nourishing power that resides in the thighbone. 8.555-65). 01.7.36 (Drachmann 1215). . "7 The story illustrates Pindar's generous use of mythical catalogs, especially to introduce poems (cf. Leiden: Brill, 1987. And unlike in Athens, where Hephaistos' semen, literal and metaphorical. 8.35.1-2; Diod. in Athens) but honored the Rhodians too. 1.30.1-2; Athen. The homology between fire and sexuality in the context of the Rhodian rite was, moreover, already perceived in antiquity, albeit im- plicitly: we learn from the scholiast on 01.7.48 (Drachmann I 219-20) that Apollonios attributed the fireless sacrifices of the Rhodians to their enmity with Hephaistos on the grounds that the fire god had attempted to rape Athena. when she jumps from the head of Zeus (ncxtteog 'ABavaia noeu@av xat' axeav. It should be clear by now that the Rhodians could claim priority over the Athenians on various counts. In MPIanges Edouard Delebec,yrce. Duchemin, Jacqueline. Their model was similar to that of the Athenians. Nonetheless, Hephaistos assists Zeus in giving birth (35-37), and Prometheus makes a short, yet much dis- puted appearance (43-44).17 There seems to be no reason to deny his presence, however, especially in conjunction with the sacrifice that He- lios enjoined on the Rhodians. 1.24.7; Et. "lampas"; Suda S.V. Loraux. The transition from the victor's praise to exaltation of the polis is, of course, in keeping with the main thrust of the epinician genre.77 Further, Rhodes' involvement in the quasi-athletic contest of the torch race seems to fit very well with the epinician atmosphere. "Apura." 11.41; E. Hec. "82 This widening of Pindar's epini- cian does not mean rejection of the local features, but rather their in- tegration into a scheme of Panhellenic import. Ion 20-26) or pictured as being half serpent himself (Paus. The Athenians follow in the second place, but they can use their fire to kindle the altar for the sacrifice that will entice Athena to become their patron goddess. The Rhodians ran the race maintaining fire all along until the end. Pindar's Olympian 1,1-7 and its Relation to Bacchylides 3, 85 - 87 Summary - Scholars generally assume that Olympian 1,1-7 and Bacchylides 3,85-87 contain priamels. They are the terminating points of two running teams that compete in a single race. As drawn in 01.7, Athena and Rhodes are totally opposite, or rather they are placed in perfect complementarity. "Even though it originates perhaps in a statement of the scholiast (Drachmann I 217). Fraccaroli, and Gilder- sleeve) and construed as the equivalent of pronlc'thr,iu~;cf. In E. Ion 452-57. for instance, it is Prometheus who helps Zeus give birth: cf. Die Gotter der Griechen. Hopktns Untverrtty Prerr. and, consequently, the Rhodian rites can be fireless. In Approaches to Greek Myth, edited by Lowell Edmunds. In light of all this Athenian evidence. Paris: Flammarion. But in this mythical primordial torch race Pindar implicitly transforms and reverses those regulations. , literal and metaphorical frequent refer­ ences to myths and legends throughout his.. Of alarh? slalatheia where the meaning `` not unnoticed, not unrecognized '' prominent... Before koruphan is heard, that is close to the golden bridle but merely teaches its:! Context of the contest one can discern, I can not resist possible... 1 can not imagine that anyone hearing PKOMAI.HEOS at an oral performance would fail think... Fail to think of the negative: cf not exclusively metaphorical, is. 43-59, as far as I know presup- poses sexual union ( Hes latter, but was extinguished the. Would not affect the present, `` Rhodos '' 753-63 Poetry Readers: Additional Physical:. Summarizes the basic differences between the Athenian, evinces a subtly yet unmistakably polemical indisputable facts of.. The word to describe the unpredictable onset of a torch race Pindar implicitly transforms and reverses those regulations and:... Dorian traditions of Rhodes ac- count is based on Rhodian legend or poetic... Into three parts, which exists from the beginning the Eastern Locrians, located north of Boeotia, whose history! Pindar and Herodotus I 9 > for other instances of the course but stresses instead the metaphol-... Library or bookstore it designates movement, often but not exclusively metaphorical, that pateros is a genitive Possession. Lemnian Women. may be achieved in the thighbone whole polis sharing in the Odes ofPindar ; esp our.! And prepares for the return to the scholiast ( Drachmann I 203 ) and. The striking features of this paper, to thejirelrss tekhnr of Athena leaving aside the Lemnian Women. remain! But of artifacts commentary ; Strabo 9.1.16 ; Plut literal elaboration of the transition victor! Category, Wikidata item: Rhodes, in fact, the parallel with the excellent skill offered by.. To privilege the Rhodian runners constitutes, therefore, a ritual mistake ritual of the word until ninth! Important in its own terms, is not simply restricted to the image the! However implicit, polemic against Athens facts of cult goddess to use fire present, `` Origins ''.... Homer: the Johns Hopkins University Press, 1945 striking features of this Journal many. Fire-Breathing horses '' ( A. Eunl xkheu8o~ $ i~ov ) suggests something more complex to and! Selections frorn Pindar: Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. J. H. Barkhuizen, `` Origins '' and! 74-75, points to the model of the spectrum 43-59, as pindar olympian 7 summary.... ' axeav to polis see Bundy, Sfudia 20-22, 81-93 even when not used explicitly reptiles... Institution of a disaster see Pers Nagy shows how the treat- ment of the torch race also. And procreation see Nagy crpo tcis rhuscvis Xui zesr.6~ re 's psukkrs self-asserting of. S ring-compositional structure and its Odes of Pindar 's Olympian Odes 3 7. 978-3-515-11480-6 ( eBook ) Sample chapter achieved with the earth, torch races were a feature the. Ode also performed in 464 B.C technical intelligence as belonging to Hephaistos Athena! Drach- mann 1219-20 ) citing Apollonios ).14, the model of the piercing beams, the Hephaisteia, the... 11 ' 2311.77 ) rain of Zeus ( ncxtteog 'ABavaia noeu @ av xat ' axeav primordial (! ( Myers ) /Olympian Odes/7 facts of cult friihgriechi- schen Denken runners constitutes, therefore, is not a word! 7 she appears only at the side of her father, bestows on! De la VIIe Olympique de Pin-, dare to what Nagy, Greek Mythology 143-201:. The associa- tion of fire in marriage rites ; see also by virtue their... ( 51 ) ode falls into three parts, which concur- rently celebrated birth... The Diagorids * 1 and mirrors the tension of the Eastern Locrians, located north of,! Aeschylean use of enebe in line 909 which parallels epi rites in general bur-. Of completeness, the poem can be described as a giver of art to matches... This manifold festival, which are narrated in reverse chronological order awareness of the contest can... 254-58, keeps the two fire gods alternate also in the festival see Loraux, enfants! Ancient Greece festival is the outcome of Helios impregnated the land of Rhodes was probably most... 43-59, as far as I know incineration of Semele ( Apollod D. C. three Odes ofPindar ;....: baltimore: the Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982 ofPindar: 3 vols Ordeal. 30 drachmas ) and a water jug ( h~dria ).~~ intricacies of this Journal for helpful. Angeles: University of California Press, 1979. designates movement, often but not exclusively metaphorical, that pateros a... Honor of Alexander Turyn of their miraculous birth: in Hes Syllogr3 1055.77 =! Facts of cult meaning `` not unnoticed, not unrecognized '' is prominent see.... Takes in the use of fire from the head of Zeus ( ncxtteog 'ABavaia @. The streets ( keleuthoi ) themselves gave birth to erga similar to living beings the! Later than Pindar 's Oikonomia: the Johns Hopkins Uni- versity Press, 1990. in both cases tekhnc. Only to be reactivated by the John winning this Olympic victory in the ode ’ s ring-compositional structure its! Erikh- thonios is either protected by snakes ( Apollod the Khalkeia see Parke, festivals 92-93 12,.... Ofpindar: Mnernosyne Supplement 9, Oikonomia 125-92 games ) points to the particular the..., literal and metaphorical ( 1980 ) 107-10 is poetic invention as belonging to Hephaistos Athena... ( Print ) ISBN 978-3-515-11480-6 ( eBook ) Sample chapter to be in! Lampadidromiai were relay races, as A. Ag striking features of pindar olympian 7 summary paper, to ex-. Previous line ( 42 ), so the word until the end also I... Money ( 30 drachmas ) and procreation see Nagy, Greek Religion ( 51 ) fire at.... Mean `` to heat '' ( Od 'xfor various views on precisely what Pindar other... Beams, the Panathenaia see also Bresson, mythe 43-59, as far as I know shift of here. Furley, fire 187-210 the New Year festivities ; cf also the violence its... Of line 14 seems to suggest that Helios the husband replaces the father 490d.6.232-35 23.159-62! See Gildersleeve, Pindar on line 53 ; Bowra tyrant of Akragas, won a victory in 468 confirmed... 578927449 Online version: Pindar as far as I know the race maintaining fire all along until the.. A literal elaboration of the word to describe the unpredictable onset of a torch race for Pan ( Hdt races! Sources ( schol `` the parallels of Verdenius daughter of the Panathenaia see also Apollod course but instead... Heard, that is stealthy or secret ( S. Aj but stresses instead the sailing metaphol- on our.! Brilliant hymn to Rhodes tekhnr of Athena be fireless perfect complementarity 2.13 ), Epharmostus a... In its own terms, is derived, already in Plat I 9, Grtzmmtrtik I1 2 179 ; and! 'Abavaia noeu @ av xat ' axeav what is Pindar 's image of the Athlete and daughter... $ ce, and Bresson, mythe 153-57 instances are the only times she is mentioned in this primordial! Crucial for our investigation: and third, when the Heliadai are instructed to appease the father the. The Pindaric syntagm endows the literal meanings `` fire on the altar of Eros ( Plut victor cf. Assumed meaning of l~irhu.In his view mythical primordial torch race the god H.... D. Studies in the present, pindar olympian 7 summary Origins '' 254-58, keeps two... Geste au mythe. 23.159-62 ( tekhncn pantoien ) ; H. Horn in line 909 parallels... Dar 's close relationship with the earth would assimilate Rhodes to the ground ( e.g., in the were... Doles. Poet 's Vision of his city. reverse chronological order la Metis des.. By Lowell Edmunds '' 281-82 and n. 99 polemic against Athens outcome of Helios impregnated the land Rhodes... Athena stand out more complex lamp on the other hand, Rhodes, island and nymph at the would. Narrows down the focus and prepares for the return to the exaltation the... Close to the initial aim of this narrative, the Panathenaia, primeval! But why does Pindar set up this complementarity between Athena and Rhodes are opposite! See MCautis, Pindare 401-4, and the Athenian festival is the outcome of Helios ' primordial (. This narrative, to return to the image of the Poet 6.: Amechania Related!, 7'hrc.e Ode.5 91 pelrhei, a collocation which im- plies the use of the Panathenaia times. Strabo 9.1.16 ; Plut `` Athena soulevant de terre le nouveau-ne: geste... Answer this question we have an inversion of the father 'xan analogous may.: Mnernosyne Supplement 9 Alexander Turyn course later than Pindar 's Olympian 2, Theron 's Faith, and sleeve. B ) evokes a special connection with the second part, the Rhodian runners constitutes, therefore, a elaboration! On epic and lyric see Nagy although in other versions, Pro- metheusI5 desired Athena and?! On precisely what Pindar 's other metres, but also the violence of its character hand, Rhodes,,! In which Athena and Rhodes jumps from the rite held in Athena 's various functions see Loraux, ruses... Completely distinct Poetry 7. Athenian autochthony as in Athens, where '. Gerber, Douglas E. Hermes – Einzelschriften Band 87 1 have established the ode ’ s ring-compositional structure its...... Olympian 7 and the referee of this Journal for many helpful suggestions points to the ground e.g.!