Low visibility to surface observers in bright sunny weather and down-moon on moonlit nights. This measure is intended for use on combatant ships in areas where bright weather with fair visibility predominates, and high angle aerial observation is unlikely, and there is a likelihood of a gunnery engagement. Measure 12 remained in use, but amended so as to be identical to Measure 22 save for the use of Ocean Gray rather than Haze Gray. By Oct. 1, 2019, the Navy plans to eliminate the blue camo pattern from the seabag. The very dark ship will be best at the bombing angle, but at very long ranges or to low-flying planes a lighter ship may be better. They should be about 1/3 the area of a rectangle 12 feet high by 20 feet long. (B) In Atlantic or Pacific Coastal waters where weather is generally sunny, visibility is high, and bright moonlight is common at night. Ship Camouflage may be defined as the means by which the visibility of a ship is reduced, or the means by which deception is caused in course or range estimation, or in class identification. A darker blue would produce more deception but can not be used because it will not appear white at night. Especially well adapted for winter use in Northern areas where nights are long and days frequently overcast. (Chief, BuShips) (March 21, 1941). Very light colored ships are best at night except in the glare of searchlight. Some deception as to target angle has been reported for both day and night operations. No one type of camouflage can possibly give any protection under all situations. The aim of the Thayer System is to create a ship which will appear like a white ship at night, and the "contained shadow", which is one of the stumbling blocks to all successful camouflage, is far more noticeable on light ships than on dark ships. Under sides of overhanging horizontal surfaces may be painted white (5-U) to lighten shadows. Insofar as conditions permit, similar precautions shall be taken on airport lenses. Useful for Protection against Submarine attack, where aerial observation is a lesser factor. 1. Unless otherwise indicated, all horizontal surfaces which are visible from the air shall be painted Deck Blue, 20-B. Replacing all-over Haze Gray Measure 13, Light Gray Measure 23 was in effect a return to Measure 3 for use by anti-submarine vessels in the, Dark pattern Measure 31 was a series of irregular geometric patterns using large polygonal and striped patterns of Black and Ocean Gray, or Black, Ocean Gray and Haze Gray. The purity of the color is an important factor in the Purkinje effect, and even a slight admixture of black in the paint will reduce its effectiveness at night. This scheme was described as a compromise low visibility scheme which was particularly effective at dawn and at sunset. [11] On 19 July Measure 12 had been prescribed for the entire Atlantic Fleet, and on 13 September Measure 11 for the Pacific. Ship camouflage measures have two general purposes: The systems included in this book belong in the first category. Here is the chronology of Abbot’s camouflage in World War II: Early 1943 Abbot was launched wearing Measure 21: Navy Blue 5-N with Deck Blue 20-B decks. There shall be no boot-topping. For presentations of Measure 31-32-33 design schemes listed by ship type, see: Some camouflage methods served both purposes. The Radio insulators shall be dark. Ingram, H. A. The Radio insulators shall be dark. Deck Blue 20-B All decks and horizontal surfaces visible from aerial observation. Navy Blue 5-N. All vertical surfaces without exception. [1], * Not a specification; measured by the US Bureau of Standards in October 1941 In measures 13, 14 and 22, all pole masts and their yards, slender upper works and attached small gear shall be painted Haze Gray 5-H. Patterns are shown for both port and starboard sides, and should be so used in order to get the best end-on effects. Initial Admiralty disruptive camouflage schemes employed polygons of multiple shades of gray, blue and green so at least two of the colors would blend with background sea or sky under different light conditions. When on surface high visibility to surface observers in all types of weather. Camouflage Measures The WWII U.S. Navy developed numerous camouflage measures. Ingram, H. A. Glass windows shall be removed, rolled down or covered, unless conditions are such that light reflection from their surface is unlikely. The pure light blue which is employed has been selected because it will appear practically like white paint at low levels of illumination. Measure 2 was also described in the January 1941 version of SHIPS-2 and was a graded camouflage, which meant that the color was changed in steps over the surface of the ship, in this case vertically. This bold contrast on a horizontal line near the horizon reduced visibility to surface observers and created the illusion of greater range. For the remainder of her wartime era service, she was painted in the horizontal "two-tone" Camouflage Measure 22. Moreover, for Measure 22 (but not 12 or 21), Navy Blue was still prescribed until existing stocks were exhausted. Raised characters, such as ships' names and draft marks, shall be retained and painted the same color as the hull in that vicinity. Ship camouflage is a form of military deception in which a ship is painted in one or more colors in order to obscure or confuse an enemy's visual observation. The development of camouflage patterns specifically for military application by American forces can be traced to the First World War. though Measure 16 contains some elements of deception. Paint entire submarine above the water line Ocean Gray, 5-0. Vertical camouflage pattern—5-O Ocean Gray (US 06), 5-N Navy Blue (US 08), and 5-L Light Gray (US 13); Flight Deck—Revised Deck Blue, same as 20-B Deck Blue (US 10); Horizontal surfaces also carried irregular patterns in Ocean Gray and Deck Blue. High visibility down-sun or down-moon in bright clear weather, but reduced visibility up-sun and up-moon in all weathers. The patterns and tones were designed to resolve at a distance to an average medium reflectivity of 20-30%. Vegetius writing in the 4th century says that "Venetian blue" (bluish-green, the same color as the sea) was used in the years 56–54 BC during the Gallic Wars, when Julius Caesar sent his speculatoria navigia(scout ships) to gather intelligence along the coast of Britain. [3], The adoption of the new measures was very slow, however: as of late May the Navy's paint factories had yet to receive the ingredients needed for the new alkyd-based paints[4] and only in late April had they received even the lampblack required for conversion paste 5-BP.[5]. A method of ship painting which is intended to give protection during a period of greatest danger may at other times be of very high visibility. A Short History of US Navy WWII Camouflage. The most common method of attaining these ends is through some form of special painting, and this book is limited to camouflage by that means. (C-in-C, Atlantic Fleet) (Nov 4, 1941). Underwater hull—Norfolk 65-A Antifouling Red (US 14). Often a pattern designed for one ship type would be adapted to another, so that, for example, the battleship North Carolina wore an adaptation of Measure 32/18D, originally a destroyer pattern. During daylight hours or under bright moonlight the pattern will be apparent and will produce some deception in the estimation of the target angle. "[15] There were no specific instructions on the positioning or shape of the splotches, which were left up to individual captains, yards or maintenance facilities, and the recommended size was frequently diesregarded, so that no two ships looked alike. The type plans show only the larger areas of blue pattern, and it may often happen that areas will be found within them which will be improved by countershading with white. McMorris, C. H. (Chief of Staff, Pacific Fleet) (October 8, 1943). Will not offer the same protection as the black system to submerged submarines operating in areas where aerial observation is an important factor, but will be lower visibility against either sea or sky when observed by surface ships. It naturally follows that a light paint has a larger per cent of reflection than a dark paint. GSI H307. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, File:USS Maryland burning at Pearl Harbor.jpg, File:USS Minneapolis (CA-36) Sept 4 1944.jpg, File:USS Hobson in Measure 15 camouflage.jpg, File:Pattern for MS-16 "Thayer" camouflage.jpg, File:USS Evans (DD-552) in MS-31 Design 7D.jpg, File:Pattern, Measure 31 Design 20L for APD-1 class destroyer-transports.jpg, World War II US Navy dazzle camouflage measures 31, 32 and 33: aircraft carriers, World War II US Navy dazzle camouflage measures 31, 32 and 33: battleships, World War II US Navy dazzle camouflage measures 31, 32 and 33: cruisers, http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Ships/S19-7/1941January31OutsideGrayPaints.html, "Outside Gray Paint -- Change in Manufacturing Formulas. This per cent may be called the reflection factor. He was the earliest advocate of a white ship, and unsuccessfully labored to secure its adoption both in the U. S. Navy and by the British Admiralty. USS Farenholt wearing Measure 32, Design 3D; compare to Benson-class pattern sheet above. This scheme consisted of Light Gray, 5-L, MTB Green (made by mixing one gallon Navy Green, 5-NG), Ocean Gray, 5-O, Deck Green, 20-G. Some used Measure 22. However, the new paints (which were shipped pre-mixed, not as tinting paste) were generally only available in stateside yards, while ships repainted at forward bases continued to use the older bluish colors. Measure 1C similarly used Navy Blue, later adopted as Measure 21. The new paints were neutral grays, Navy Gray replacing Navy Blue (but confusingly receiving the designation "5-N" while Navy Blue became "5-NB"), and Deck Gray replacing Deck Blue. (Chief, BuShips) (July 11, 1941). Sea Blue on the hull up to the main deck (hangar deck on carriers), Ocean Gray from main deck level to the top of the superstructure masses, and Haze Gray (5-H) for masts and other vertical projections above superstructure level. One design, based on the British-designed Symien sniper suit, consisted of loose strips of multi-colored cloth, twine or burlap attached to a loose-fitting hooded jacket & trousers, designed to appear as foliage from … It shall be given a wide circulation among commissioned personnel. White with large polygonal patches of light sea blue (called Thayer Blue.) Ocean Gray and Haze Gray retained their names but lost their bluish cast. USS Minneapolis wearing a variant of Measure 8, 1943, By the summer of 1941 it had become apparent that Dark Gray (5-D) was unacceptably visible under all conditions,[8] and the "conversion" 5-D made from prewar #5 was also too glossy and prone to chipping and peeling; meanwhile Pacific Fleet experiments with new colors Sea Blue and Sapphire Blue were deemed successful. This measure was most useful in Arctic latitudes with extended twilight and frequent fog and cloud cover. ... USS Meredith displaying a variant of the Measure 32 camouflage pattern in … (Chief of Staff, Pacific Fleet) (Sept 15, 1942). USS Buchanan (DD-484) wearing Measure 12 (Modified). For submarines operating beyond the range of enemy aircraft. Here is the US Navy Iowa-Class Measure 32/22d Color Profile and Paint Guide. Navy Blue 5-N To be applied to the hull to the height of the main deck edge at its lowest point, as shown on Plates XIV to XVII. As currently practised in the Fleet, the areas used in pattern camouflage have often been too small to be effective. Rathe… A homebrew colour worn by the ships of the U.S. Asiatic Fleet in the early days of WW2, as an equivalent for Measure 1 camouflage when the Fleet could not obtain 5-D Dark Gray:: Mix 20 parts Colourcoats US 08 5-N Navy Blue to 3 parts Colourcoats US 27 Norfolk 250-N Flight Deck Stain. When on surface low visibility to aerial observers in all types of weather, except up-sun in bright weather. Friedell, W. L. (Commandant, Navy Yard, Mare Island) (April 19, 1941). USS Missouri (BB-63) wore this pattern. High visibility in bright weather to aerial observers at close ranges, but not necessarily so at distant ranges. [2] Rather than waste the large quantities of Standard Gray already in inventory and aboard ships, BuShips directed the issuance of a black tinting paste (5-BP) which when mixed in stated proportions with Standard Gray would yield a close approximation of 5-D, with issue of the new paint in pre-mixed form to follow. At low levels of illumination a blue paint will appear relatively lighter and a red paint will appear relatively darker than these two paints appear in daylight. Within the first six months of combat, the United States Navy modified Measures 11 and 12 to meet the needs of Pacific Ocean operations. The Bureau of Ships is issuing four publications on the subject of ship painting. Deck Blue 20-B. USS Freedom in its new paint scheme on Feb. 22. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository English: United States Navy Camouflage Measure 22 - Graded System was navy blue low on the hull below the first continuous deck, with haze gray above that. Sloping surfaces, such as the forward part of gun turrets, will be seen both from the air and from the surface, and the color of these areas shall be decided on the following basis: (2) If the system is intended for protection against surface or In Protective Coloration in Nature there is always some "cover" or fixed background which may be matched. In fact the Atlantic Fleet had ordered the substitution of 5-N for 5-S as early as November 1941. Under sides of overhanging horizontal surfaces may be painted with white (5-U) to lighter) shadows. The painting shall be carried over all parts which are visible from the air including the numbers, capstan, running light boards and bridge rails. This history is focused on the "Dazzle" camouflages of Measures 31-32-33 of WWII and some of the camouflages that preceded their adoption. When light ships are clearly visible it is easy to judge target angle and make identification. High gloss is very objectionable in camouflage paint. [13], In November aircraft carriers began applying a dark blue-gray flight deck stain (#250) approximately the same color as Deck Blue, together with a stain approximately Ocean Gray for flight deck markings (#251).[14]. USN Camouflage Measures This section contains a description and example of camouflage patterns described in SHIPS-2. Deck Blue 20-B Deck surfaces and other horizontal surfaces, which are visible to aerial observers. Limitations in the Use of Protective Coloration. Horizontal surfaces painted Deck Blue. High visibility under searchlight, and down-moon at close ranges. Black-Formula 82 Paint entire submarine above the water line black. Deck Blue paint, for all surface vessels except carriers, and Aircraft Carrier Flight Deck Stain, are supplied ready-mixed from the Navy Yards. This dilemma has made a deliberate choice necessary, a choice dictated by the chief source of danger in any given area. Navy Blue, Ocean Gray and Haze Gray paints are made by adding to 5 gallons of white untinted base (5-Ua) the stated number of pints of dark blue-black tinting material (5-TMa) listed in the table below. Applied: 2 August to 9 October 1942, Norfolk Navy Yard The pattern changed as seen below Changed: 23 February to 8 March 1943. ", USS Hobson wearing Measure 15 off North Africa, November 1942, Ships-2 pattern drawing for Measure 16 on a sub chaser. Effectiveness. Samples of the colors, enclosed in an envelope, accompany this book. January Commander Air Force, Pacific Fleet Carrier Camouflage Memo-Requests changing Bon Homme Richard and Coral Sea's camouflage. Gloss is the power of a surface to reflect light specularly, which means like a mirror, and a surface which is not glossy is said to be mat.